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The University of Chicago Style Guide



The University of Chicago Style uses notes to document sources. The notes, which are numbered consecutively, appear as footnotes at the end of the page, or as endnotes on a separate sheet of paper at the end of the essay.

In addition to footnotes or endnotes, a bibliography or a works cited list must be provided at the end of the paper. The entries are arranged alphabetically by author's last name or title if no author is given. The entire paper must be double spaced, including the bibliography and notes.

The Chicago Manual of Style has two different types of reference styles. One is the Author-Date System and the other is the Documentary (or Humanities) Style. The first is typically used by those in the sciences. The second is traditionally used in the humanities and social sciences.

The Turabian Style is a style similar to the University of Chicago Style. It is based on the University of Chicago Style Guide (i.e., on the University of Chicago Press's Manual of Style). The Turabian Style was developed by Kate L. Turabian Kate, the dissertation secretary at the University of Chicago for more than 30 years. She developed her guide for the papers, theses, and dissertations of students and researchers. It is published as A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. The Turabian Style is commonly known as the Chicago Style.

The University of Chicago and the Turabian Style systems differ mainly in the location of references in the text, the location of dates in the references, and the capitalization of titles.

A few examples of the rules of both style guides are as follows:

  • Endnotes should follow the body of the paper and precede any appendices and the bibliography.

  • Footnotes and endnotes should be numbered consecutively throughout the paper.

  • The first letter of all significant words in the titles and subtitles of works and parts of works should be capitalized in bibliographies and notes.

  • Italicize the titles of periodicals and books.

  • Use "ed." for "editor" or "edited by" and "trans" for "translator" or "translated by."

  • Periods are generally used between elements in references in bibliographies and reference lists.

  • Use a colon to separate titles from subtitles and the place of publication from the publisher's name.

  • Use quotation marks are around article and chapter titles.

For further information on these style guides, consult the most recent editions of the following print guides.

  • The Chicago Manual of Style - University of Chicago Press

  • A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations - University of Chicago Press


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